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What are the Risk Factors of Osteoporosis?

Gender—While both men and women lose some bone tissue with normal aging, women entering adulthood, on average, already have lower bone density than men. A number of other factors also put women at higher risk of bone loss as they age. Bone loss in women reaches its highest rate in the years just after menopause, slowing at about 65–70 years old to about the same rate as men.

Ethnic or racial origin—People of Asian or Caucasian descent are at higher risk of osteoporosis.

Genetics—Having parents with a history of bone fractures, especially in the hips, increases osteoporosis risk.

Glandular Disorders—Problems in the thyroid, parathyroid, adrenal, or other hormone-producing glands are associated with increased osteoporosis risk.

Diet and Nutrition—Various nutritional factors, such as calcium or Vitamin D deficiency, increase osteoporosis risk. Bariatric (weight loss) surgery can be another risk factor, since the surgery may affect the patient’s ability to absorb calcium and other nutrients.

Medications—With long-term use, some prescription medications, such as corticosteroids and some drugs for treatment of gastric reflux, depression, or cancer, increase osteoporosis risk, along with some medications that prevent seizure or organ transplant rejection.

Lifestyle Issues—Excessive alcohol use, smoking, and lack of exercise are associated with osteoporosis risk.


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